by Thomas Hobbes and John Locke

And so, in addition to the older models of Thomas Hobbes and John Locke, Shaftesbury and Mandeville constructed their own brands of secular ethics. If morality once referred to religious rules of conduct, in England by 1730, this assumption was increasingly challenged by competing theories based on man’s relationship not to God, but rather to Nature. These views varied from asserting man’s innate righteousness to his inborn selfishness. In 1743, a professor named David Fordyce articulated this new approach: “Moral philosophy has this in common with Natural philosophy, that it appeals to Nature or Fact; depends on Observation, and Builds its Reasonings on plain uncontroverted Experiments, or upon the fullest Induction of Particulars of which the Subject will admit.” A modern mind and self had begun to vie for prominence with traditional notions of the soul as the new foundation for ethics, behavior, and social life. However, as the debates between Locke, Shaftesbury, and Mandeville demonstrated, the conclusions varied so far and wide as to call the whole endeavor into doubt.

Both Thomas Hobbes and John Locke wrote about contract theories of government.

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Thomas Hobbes ja John Locke | Elävä arkisto | YLE

Thomas Hobbes and John Locke Thomas Hobbes and John Locke are two political philosophers who are famous for their theories about the formation of the society and discussing man in his natural state.

Thomas Hobbes And John Locke Thomas hobbes and john locke

Two prominent English political philosophers have had a profound impact on modern political science. Thomas Hobbes and John Locke both have made contributions to modern political science and they both had similar views on where power lies in a society. They both are in favor of a popular contract or constitution, which is were the people give the power to govern to their government. This does not necessarily mean a democracy, but can be something as simple as a tribe or as complex as the fictional government described by Plato in The Republic, which is more like an aristocracy or communism rather than a Republic. The key is that the people have granted this authority to the government and that authority rests in the people. This, however, is were most of the similarities in opinion end. Of the two, Locke has been the most influential in shaping modern politics, our view of human nature, the nature of individual rights and the shape of popular constitutions that exist today; on the other hand, Hobbes has influenced to some degree what can be done to change a government by the people.

Thomas Hobbes John Locke Jean Jacques Rousseau