James RahcelsThe Debate Over Utilitarianism - Scribd

In the philosophy of science Smart was one of the most influential supporters of realism about the sub-microscopic particles of physics. Electron theory is not merely a device for predicting experimental results, rather electrons are the causes of the results; otherwise, Smart argued, the results would be some kind of enduring miracle. Smart viewed time as a fourth dimension akin to the three spatial ones – objects are extended in time as well as in space. He saw this view as the only one to hold in the light of relativity theory and was impatient with those philosophers who think that one can sensibly philosophise about time without due deference to what physics has to say. In normative ethics he defended act utilitarianism: the right act is that act out of those available to the agent that would produce the most happiness (or, better, has the greatest expectation of doing so). His criticism of rule utilitarianism – the view that the right act is the act in accord with the rule the following of which would produce the most happiness – as involving a kind of ‘rule worship’ inconsistent with utilitarianism’s guiding focus on outcomes set the agenda for much of the debate over utilitarianism and more generally consequentialist views in ethics.

Book: Contemporary Moral Problems: The Debate over Utilitarianism by James Rachels

“The Debate over Utilitarianism.” In Contemporary Moral Problems, 5th Ed. Edited by James E. White. Minneapolis: West Publishing Co., 1985. .

the debate over utilitarianism | My Blog for ITETHIC

Objections to Utilitarianism (continued) Reading: Rachels, “The Debate over Utilitarianism” p.5-8 Ursula K. Le Guin, “” Rachels, James. “The Utilitarian Approach” and “The Debate over Utilitarianism.” The Elements of Moral Philosophy. New York: McGraw-Hill Education, 1986. Print.

James Rachels: The Debate over Utilitarianism | Bulisik

PPPS. This debate reminds me a bit about the debate over utilitarianism. Some anti-utilitarians believe the world would be a happier place if we abandoned utilitarianism. Some NGDP opponents believe NGDP would grow at a more stable rate if central banks targeted something other than NGDP.

Chapter:6 - James Rachels: The Debate over Utilitarianism Book: ..


Learning Expectations: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Expects to learn about what is the debate over Utilitarianism all about. Expects to learn more about Utilitarianism. Expects to learn what is being argued in this chapter of this book. Expects to learn more about morality. Expects to learn what’s the difference of the authors’ point of view and my point of view.Preface About the Seventh Edition 1. WHAT IS MORALITY? 1.1. The Problem of Definition 1.2. First Example: Baby Theresa 1.3. Second Example: Jodie and Mary 1.4. Third Example: Tracy Latimer 1.5. Reason and Impartiality 1.6. The Minimum Conception of Morality 2. THE CHALLENGE OF CULTURAL RELATIVISM 2.1. Different Cultures Have Different Moral Codes 2.2. Cultural Relativism 2.3. The Cultural Differences Argument 2.4. What Follows from Cultural Relativism 2.5. Why There Is Less Disagreement Than It Seems 2.6. Some Values are Shared by All Cultures 2.7. Judging a Cultural Practice to Be Undesirable 2.8. Back to the Five Claims 2.9. What We Can Learn from Cultural Relativism 3. SUBJECTIVISM IN ETHICS 3.1. The Basic Idea of Ethical Subjectivism 3.2. The Evolution of the Theory 3.3. The First Stage: Simple Subjectivism 3.4. The Second Stage: Emotivism 3.5. The Role of Reason in Ethics 3.6. Are There Proofs in Ethics? 3.7. The Question of Homosexuality 4. DOES MORALITY DEPEND ON RELIGION? 4.1. The Presumed Connection between Morality and Religion 4.2. The Divine Command Theory 4.3. The Theory of Natural Law 4.4. Religion and Particular Moral Issues 5. ETHICAL EGOISM 5.1. Is There a Duty to Help the Starving? 5.2. Psychological Egoism 5.3. Three Arguments for Ethical Egoism 5.4. Three Arguments against Ethical Egoism 6. THE SOCIAL CONTRACT THEORY 6.1. Hobbes's Argument 6.2. The Prisoner's Dilemma 6.3. Some Advantages of the Social Contract Theory 6.4. The Problem of Civil Disobedience 6.5. Difficulties for the Theory 7. THE UTILITARIAN APPROACH 7.1. The Revolution in Ethics 7.2. First Example: Euthanasia 7.3. Second Example: Marijuana 7.4. Third Example: Nonhuman Animals 8. THE DEBATE OVER UTILITARIANISM 8.1. The Classical Version of the Theory 8.2. Is Pleasure All That Matters? 8.3. Are Consequences All That Matter? 8.4. Should We Be Equally Concerned for Everyone? 8.5. The Defense of Utilitarianism 8.6. Concluding Thoughts 9. ARE THERE ABSOLUTE MORAL RULES? 9.1. Harry Truman and Elizabeth Anscombe 9.2. The Categorical Imperative 9.3. Kant's Arguments on Lying 9.4. Conflicts between Rules 9.5. Kant's Insight 10. KANT AND RESPECT FOR PERSONS 10.1. Kant's Core Ideas 10.2. Retribution and Utility in the Theory of Punishment 10.3. Kant s Retributivism 11. FEMINISM AND THE ETHICS OF CARE 11.1. Do Women and Men Think Differently about Ethics? 11.2. Implications for Moral Judgment 11.3. Implications for Ethical Theory 12. VIRTUE ETHICS 12.1. The Ethics of Virtue and the Ethics of Right Action 12.2. The Virtues 12.3. Two Advantages of Virtue Ethics 12.4 Virtue and Conduct 12.5. The Problem of Incompleteness 12.6. Conclusion 13. WHAT WOULD A SATISFACTORY MORAL THEORY BE LIKE? 13.1. Morality without Hubris 13.2. Treating People as They Deserve 13.3. A Variety of Motives 13.4. Multiple-Strategies Utilitarianism 13.5. The Moral Community 13.6. Justice and Fairness 13.7. Conclusion Notes on Sources Index