Some Native American literature and authors bridge theabove mentioned paradigm shift. Sherman Alexie and his movie SmokeSignals is one such example and can be used to illustrate this point.

Hobson, G. The Remembered Earth: An Anthology of Contemporary Native American Literature. 1981.

Although there is continuing need for humor in Native American literature to celebrate survival and
to provide a release and a means to see things alternatively, Lincoln's celebration of humor as
ethnic glue breaks down under the weight of suffering recorded by Kinsella's work. If, as Lincoln
suggests, 'tribal humor stitches the frayed cross-cultural fabric of multiethnic America', then
Kinsella's work reveals those stitches unravelling. In the face of ongoing colonialism, Kinsella's work
reminds us to be wary of being comforted into complaisance by the use of humor in contemporary
Native American fiction.

Andrew Wiget, Native American Literatures (Boston: Twayne, 1985).

Holland, Jeanne. "Teaching Native American Literature from ." CEA Critic 55 (1993):1-21. There are many similarities and differences between Native American and Puritan literature. These include emotion, style, figurative language, and description. In Native American literature, as well as Puritan literature, they show significant events in their cultures. Both Native American and Puritan literature are similar because both use figurative and descriptive language in their writing, however they are also different.

Early Native American Literature

Special Topicsin Native American Studies

Over the course of the semester, we will touch on many topics within our general study of Native American Literature. Here is a preview of a few of these topics:

What is Native American Literature?

Okker, Patricia. "Native American Literatures and the Canon: The Case of Zitkala-Sa." In American Realism and the Canon. Ed. Tom Quirk and Gary Scharnhorst. Newark: U of Delaware P, 1994. 87-101.In addition to the fact that Native American Literature (English 160) is a certified I.A.I. course that transfers to all Illinois universities, it also fufills the College of DuPage general education requirement for either Humanities, Human Relations, or International Education. As such, it is an independent study, self-paced survey of Indian literature, which means reading and enjoying tales, songs. poems, memoirs, speeches, essays, short stories, and novels told or written by Indians, about Indian people. (While indigenous people have been called Native American, many refer to themselveas as "Indian People.")